Matos Maasei 5778

RABBI MOSHE RIBIAT

אם בחקתי תלכו (ויקרא כו:ג) ויצבאו על מדין כאשר צוה ד’ את משה ויהרגו כל זכר (במדבר לא:ז)

They massed against Midian, as Hashem commanded Moshe,
and they killed all males (Bamidbar 31:7)

After the soldiers came back, Moshe Rabbeinu told them,ועתה הרגו כל זכר בטף וכל אשה יודעת איש … הרוגו, “So now, kill every male among the young children, and every woman…” (Bamidbar 31:17). It would seem that the entire Midianite Nation was wiped out, with the exception of the toddlers. If that is true, then there would no longer be a Midianite nation. However, the Pasuk in Sefer Shoftim says, ויעשו בני ישראל הרע בעיני ד’ ויתנם ד’ ביד מדין …(שופטים ו:א), “The children of Israel did what was evil in the eyes of Hashem, so Hashem delivered them into the hand of Midian” (Shoftim 6:1).
Where, then, did these Midianites come from? Another question is, why didn’t Avraham Avinu’s Zechus help them from being destroyed, since they were Bnei Keturah, descendants of Avraham Avinu?
Equally perplexing is the sending of Pinchas with the attacking army. Rashi (Bamidbar 31:6) explains that Pinchas was sent to avenge the sale of Yosef, his maternal grandfather, who was sold by the Midianites. However, he was also a descendant of Yisro, who was from Midian. How can he be sent to destroy his mother’s family?
Rav Shimon Schwab, in his Seferמעין בית השואבה, answers that it is very possible that Midian was an extremely large nation, maybe even two separate kingdoms. The Bnei Yisrael only went to destroy the section ruled by the five princes who attacked them. The rest of the Midianites (residing next to Mitzrayim, etc.) were not included in this rout. Therefore, Pinchas was not fighting his maternal family, but other people from that nation.
Perhaps there is an alternate understanding. Rashi (Bamidbar 22:4) questions how the elders of Midian and the officers of Moav could go together to Bilaam. He asks, “These two countries were constantly at war with each other, as it says, המכה את מדין בשדה מואב…, ‘who defeated the Midianites in the field of Moav…’ (Bereishis 36:35), only they made peace to face this bigger threat.” It can safely be assumed, then, that there were captive Midianites among the Moavites. Their nation could then have been reestablished from these captives at a later time. There would then be no problem as far as the Zechus of Avraham Avinu is concerned, since there would still be descendants.
The third question, however, requires another explanation entirely. When Moshe Rabbeinu came to Midian, the Torah saysולכהן מדין שבע בנות…ותמלאנה את…להשקות צאן אביהן .ויבאו הרעים ויגרשום…, “The minister of Midian had seven daughters…and filled the troughs to water their father’s sheep. The shepherds came and drove them away… (Shemos 2:16-17). Rashi explains that Yisro was פורש, separated himself from idol worship, and the Midianites ostracized him and his family. There is no mention anywhere that they ever lifted this ban from his family. If so, since they were not treating his family as one of theirs, Pinchas did not feel any connection to them. To the contrary, maybe there was a slight resentment from Yisro’s family. The only family connection he felt therefore was to “Yosef,” and he had no problem exacting revenge.
In a similar vein, one can posit the same for the second question. The Midianites showed a complete disregard for their family connection, first by the sale of Yosef and again here in the desert. This disregard cut them off from the Zechus of Avraham Avinu, since it is a family-based Zechus. By showing a complete lack of care for family, “family” no longer “cared” for them.
Another possible answer to this question might be that since Yisro’s family was staying alive, the continuation would be through them.


RABBI MOSHE REZNIK

Built into the format of Shemona Esrei are many changes/additions tailored to the current seasons and holidays. Many of these changes are M’akev, invalidate the Tefilla (e.g., if one saidמשיב הרוח ומוריד הגשם in the summer or if one forgot to say Yaaleh Veyavo on Chol Hamoed). Therefore, if one realized that he Davened incorrectly only after he finished Shemona Esrei, he would have to Daven again. With regard to these Halachos, Shemona Esrei is considered finished after the secondיהיו לרצון. Many other changes are not M’akev (e.g., most of the phrases that are added during the Aseres Y’mei Teshuva and Al Hanissim on Chanukah and Purim); therefore, if one forgot them, he would not Daven over.
If one is not sure if he made the addition, it is assumed that he Davened the way that he was used to and he probably did not add it in. Therefore, he should Daven over but have in mind that in case he did Daven correctly, this Tefilla should be a Nedava, donation. If one only realized after it was too late to Daven again that he had forgotten to make any of the additions that are M’akev, he has the same status as someone who forgot to Daven altogether, and he must Daven a Tashlumin, additional Shemona Esrei, as payment.
The rules for Tashlumin are as follows: First, one Davens the current Tefilla. For example, if one missed Mincha, he should first Daven Maariv. Then he should Daven again, and the second one will be the payment. The second Tefilla should have the same format as the first one, not the format of the one that he is trying to make up. (For example, if one forgot Mashiv Haruach in Mincha on Friday, he should Daven Maariv of Shabbos a second time, and not a weekday Shemona Esrei.)
The question arises as to what one should do if he forgot Yaaleh Veyavo in Mincha of Rosh Chodesh and the following Maariv is no longer Rosh Chodesh. If he were to Daven again, he would not be able to say Yaaleh Veyavo anymore. And If he Davens again without Yaaleh Veyavo, then he is not really gaining anything, because he already Davened once without saying Yaaleh Veyavo.
There is a Machlokes Rishonim about what one should do in such a case. Tosafos (Brachos 26b), quoting Ri, says that one should not Daven again because he would not be gaining anything, but Rif and Chachmai Purvantzia maintain that he should Daven again anyway. They hold that what was Davened the first time doesn’t count as anything. The Mechaber (O.C. 108:11) Paskens that one should Daven a second time, with the mental stipulation that if he is not really obligated to do so, it should be a Nedava.
There is usually a rule that when one davens a Nedava he must be Mechadesh Bah Davar, add something new to the Tefilla. The Mechaber says that in this case it is not necessary. Mishna Berura explains that the very fact that he is likely fulfilling an obligation is itself considered the Chiddush.
The Mishna Berura points out that the Mechaber’s Psak would not be applicable on Shabbos. When the Beis Hamikdash was standing, the only Korbanos that could be brought were the Chovos, obligations of the day, but not any Nedavos. Now that Davening is done in place of the Korbanos, a Nedava is not allowed on Shabbos.
Therefore, in a case where Friday is Rosh Chodesh and Shabbos is not, if one forgot Yaaleh Veyavo in Mincha and only remembered after it was too late to Daven Mincha, he should not Daven a second Maariv. But if he forgot to Daven Mincha altogether, he should Daven two Maarivs of Shabbos.